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Author Topic: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint  (Read 794 times)

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Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« on: December 13, 2017, 03:42:19 PM »


This Biblical Timeline was created using passages from the Brenton's 1851 Septuagint (LXX) [1].  The timeline is anchored on a date of 586 BC for the destruction of Solomon's Temple. The Brenton verses are actively linked to the Studybible website.


Note: this timeline yields a total of 391 years between the apostasy of Israel in the 4th year of Rehoboam (977 BC) and the destruction of Jerusalem (586 BC). The prophecy of Ezekiel 4:4-5, 9 as found in the Dead Sea Scrolls implies the time of iniquity to be 390 years. The Brenton Septuagint for Ezekiel 4:4-5 implies the time of iniquity to be only 190 years.

Births                                                    Start BC        End BC          Years          Chron          Sum          LXX Verses 
-------
Adam Created539753970-0Gen 1:26
Adam Created to Seth Birth53975167230-230Gen 5:3
Seth Birth to Enos Birth51674962205-435Gen 5:6
Enos Birth to Cainan Birth49624772190-625Gen 5:9
Cainan Birth to Mahalaleel Birth47724602170-795Gen 5:12
Mahalaleel Birth to Jared Birth46024437165-960Gen 5:15
Jared Birth to Enoch Birth44374275162-1122Gen 5:18
Enoch Birth to Methuselah Birth42754110165-1287Gen 5:21
Methuselah Birth to Lamech Birth [1]41103923187-1474Gen 5:25
Lamech Birth to Noah Birth39233735188-1662Gen 5:28-29
Noah Birth to Flood37353135600-2262Gen 7:6
-------
Flood31353134131352263Gen 7:11, Gen 8:13
-------
Flood to Arphaxad Birth313431322-2265Gen 11:10
Arphaxad Birth to Cainan Birth31322997135-2400Gen 11:12
Cainan Birth to Sala Birth29972867130-2530Gen 11:13
Salah Birth to Eber Birth28672737130-2660Gen 11:14
Eber (Heber) Birth to Peleg Birth27372603134-2794Gen 11:16
Peleg Birth to Reu Birth (Babel)26032473130-2924Gen 11:18
Reu Birth to Serug Birth24732341132-3056Gen 11:20
Serug Birth to Nahor Birth23412211130-3186Gen 11:22
Nahor Birth to Terah Birth22112032179-3365Gen 11:24
Terah Birth to Abraham Birth2032196270-3435Gen 11:26
-------
Abraham to Exodus-----Gen 11:26
-------
Abraham Birth to Canaan1962188775-3510Gen 12:4
Abraham Covenant---1887-Gen 12:7
Abraham Covenant to Isaac Birth--[25]--Gen 17:17-19
Isaac Age at Jacob Birth--[60]--Gen 25:26
Jacob Age at Arrival in Egypt--[130]--Gen 47:8-10
Arrival in Egypt---1672-Gen 47:8-10
Time in Egypt--[215]--Gen 47:8-10
Abraham in Canaan to Exodus18871457430-3940Exo 12:40
Exodus---1457-Exo 12:40
-------
Kings of JudahStartEndReign--Exo 12:40
-------
Saul Reign--[40]1101-Acts 13:21
David Reign--[40]1061-2Sam 5:4
Solomon Reign--[40]1021-1Kin 11:42
Exodus to Solomon Temple14571017440-43801Kin 6:1
Temple Started---1017-1Kin 6:1
Temple to End of Reign101798136-44161Kin 11:42
Rehoboam98196417-44331Kin 14:21
Apostasy of Israel---977-1Kin 14:22-25
Abijah9649613-44362Chr 13:1-2
Asa96192041-44771Kin 15:9-10
Jehoshaphat92089525-45021Kin 22:42
Jehoram8958878-45102Kin 8:16-17
Ahaziah8878861-45112Kin 8:25-26
Queen Athahah8868797-45182Kin 11:1-4, 2Kin 20-21
Joash87983940-45582Kin 12:1
Amaziah83981029-45872Kin 14:1-2
Uzziah81075852-46392Chr 26:1-3
Jotham75874216-46552Kin 15:32-33
Ahaz74272616-46712Kin 16:2
Hezekiah72669729-47002Kin 18:1-2
Manasseh69764255-47552Kin 21:1
Amon6426402-47572Kin 21:19
Josiah64060931-47882Kin 22:1
Jehoiakim60959811-47992Kin 23:36
Jehoiachin5985971-48002Kin 24:8
Zedekiah's reign59758611-48112Kin 24:18
-------
Temple Destroyed---586-2Kin 25:1-9
Creation to Temple Destroyed----4811-
Apostasy to Temple Destroyed---391--
Temple Destroyed to Christ03-583--
Creation to Christ----5397-
Christ to Present32017-2020--
Creation to Present----7417-
-------



[1] The Brenton Translation was published by Samuel Bagster & Sons, Ltd., London 1851, and has a "begat age" for Lamech that is 20 years earlier than in the Hebrew text (167 vs 187). If Methusala begat Lamech at age 167, he would have 802 years remaining in his life, which means he would still be alive after the flood. But if he begat Lamech at age 187, as indicated by the Hebrew text, he would die 6 or 7 years prior to the flood. Therefore, the 187 year begat date for Lamech is probably the more accurate one.

« Last Edit: February 08, 2018, 09:11:29 PM by Rev20 »
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Ron Black

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Re: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« Reply #1 on: December 14, 2017, 12:35:32 PM »


Abraham in Canaan to Exodus    1887   1457   430   -   3790      Exo 12:40
Exodus to Solomon Temple        1457   1017   440   -   4230      1Kin 6:1


I am having a problem with this. The Bible says Israel was in Egypt for 400 years.

Genesis 15:13 Then the LORD said to Abram, “Know this for certain: Your offspring will be foreigners in a land that does not belong to them; they will be enslaved and oppressed 400 years.

It also says that it was 480 years from the exodus to the start of the temple.

1 Kings 6:1 Solomon began to build the temple for the LORD in the four hundred eightieth year after the Israelites came out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of his reign over Israel, in the second month, in the month of Ziv.
 
Ron Black


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Rev20

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Re: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« Reply #2 on: December 14, 2017, 02:12:52 PM »


I am having a problem with this. The Bible says Israel was in Egypt for 400 years.

Genesis 15:13 Then the LORD said to Abram, “Know this for certain: Your offspring will be foreigners in a land that does not belong to them; they will be enslaved and oppressed 400 years.

It also says that it was 480 years from the exodus to the start of the temple.

1 Kings 6:1 Solomon began to build the temple for the LORD in the four hundred eightieth year after the Israelites came out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of his reign over Israel, in the second month, in the month of Ziv.
 


Ron,

The translation you quoted relies on the Masoretic Text which has some serious timeline issues. Peter said we should rely on prophetic interpretation by the New Testament authors (1 Pet 1:8-12), who typically quoted the Greek Septuagint. Paul indicated the time from the promise until the Sinai covenant (the law) was 430 years:

"And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect." -- Gal 3:17 KJV

It is also worth pointing out that Genesis 15:13 says nothing about Egypt. What is says is, from the time of the birth of Isaac, until the time they left Egypt, Abraham's seed resided in a land that didn't belong to them; and during that time they were humbled, afflicted, and enslaved -- but not all at the same time:

"And it was said to Abram, Thou shalt surely know that thy seed shall be a sojourner in a land not their own, and they shall enslave them, and afflict them, and humble them four hundred years." -- Gen 15:13 LXX

Therefore, on that point, the Septuagint is reliable.

Your second point is dependent on which translation you believe:

"And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the Lord." -- 1Kin 6:1 KJV

"And it came to pass in the four hundred and fortieth year after the departure of the children of Israel out of Egypt, in the fourth year and second month of the reign of king Solomon over Israel, that the king commanded that they should take great and costly stones for the foundation of the house, and hewn stones. And the men of Solomon, and the men of Chiram hewed the stones, and laid them for a foundation." -- 1Kin 6:1 LXX

I go with the Septuagint.

Rev

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Re: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« Reply #3 on: December 14, 2017, 02:16:30 PM »


I am having a problem with this. The Bible says Israel was in Egypt for 400 years.



Ron, have you seen this video?




Dan



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Ron Black

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Re: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« Reply #4 on: December 14, 2017, 08:53:59 PM »


Ron, have you seen this video?


That is a great video, Dan.  It helped a lot.
Ron


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Re: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« Reply #5 on: December 14, 2017, 08:56:34 PM »


The translation you quoted relies on the Masoretic Text which has some serious timeline issues.

I go with the Septuagint.


Thanks Rev. That was very helpful.
Ron

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LXXResearcher

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Re: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« Reply #6 on: January 06, 2018, 12:14:22 AM »


This Biblical Timeline was created using passages from the Brenton's 1851 Septuagint (LXX).  The timeline is anchored on a date of 586 BC for the destruction of Solomon's Temple. The Brenton verses are actively linked to the Studybible website.


Dan, I don't know if you are aware of this, but check out this passage from Ezekiel:

"Thou also, son of man, take thee a tile, and lay it before thee, and pourtray upon it the city, even Jerusalem: And lay siege against it, and build a fort against it, and cast a mount against it; set the camp also against it, and set battering rams against it round about. Moreover take thou unto thee an iron pan, and set it for a wall of iron between thee and the city: and set thy face against it, and it shall be besieged, and thou shalt lay siege against it. This shall be a sign to the house of Israel. Lie thou also upon thy left side, and lay the iniquity of the house of Israel upon it: according to the number of the days that thou shalt lie upon it thou shalt bear their iniquity. For I have laid upon thee the years of their iniquity, according to the number of the days, three hundred and ninety days: so shalt thou bear the iniquity of the house of Israel." -- Eze 4:1-5 KJV

According to your chronology, the time from Solomon's death to the destruction of the temple was 981 - 586 = 395 years.  If we assume that the years of the king's reigns were not all full years (for example 24 years 8 months, rather than 25, and etc.), there is likely enough overlap to whittle that number down to 390 years, which is the time (in days) that Ezekiel bore the iniquity of the house of Israel.  This is John Gill:

"Verse 5. For I have laid upon thee the years of their iniquity, Or the iniquity which for so many years they have been guilty of; that is, the punishment of it: according to the number of the days; a day for a year; three hundred and ninety days; which signify three hundred and ninety years; and so many years there were from the revolt of the ten tribes from Rehoboam, and the setting up the calves at Dan and Bethel, to the destruction of Jerusalem; which may be reckoned thus: the apostasy was in the fourth year of Rehoboam, so that there remained thirteen years of his reign, for he reigned seventeen years; Abijah his successor reigned three years; Asa, forty one; Jehoshaphat, twenty five; Joram, eight; Ahaziah, one; Athaliah, seven; Joash, forty; Amaziah, twenty nine: Uzziah, fifty two; Jotham, sixteen; Ahaz, sixteen; Hezekiah, twenty nine; Manasseh, fifty five; Amos, two; Josiah, thirty one; Jehoahaz, three months; Jehoiakim, eleven years; Jeconiah, three months and ten days; and Zedekiah, eleven years; in all three hundred and ninety years. Though Grotius reckons them from the fall of Solomon to the carrying captive of the ten tribes by Shalmaneser. According to Jerom, both the three hundred and ninety days, and the forty days, were figurative of the captivities of Israel and Judah." [John Gill, Ezekiel, "John Gill's Old Testament Commentary." Grace E-Books, Eze 4:5, p.55]

Matthew Henry includes those of the northern tribes who escaped captivity and joined with Judah under a decree by Hezekiah:

"The 390 days, according to the prophetic dialect, signified 390 years; and, when the prophet lies so many days on his side, he bears the guilt of that iniquity which the house of Israel, the ten tribes, had borne 390 years, reckoning from their first apostasy under Jeroboam to the destruction of Jerusalem, which completed the ruin of those small remains of them that had incorporated with Judah." [Matthew Henry, Ezekiel, "Henry Commentary Vol IV (Isa to Mal)." Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2000, Eze 4:1-5, p.1107]

The decree:

"So the posts went with the letters from the king [Hezekiah] and his princes throughout all Israel and Judah, and according to the commandment of the king, saying, Ye children of Israel, turn again unto the Lord God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, and he will return to the remnant of you, that are escaped out of the hand of the kings of Assyria." -- 2Chr 30:6

"For a multitude of the people, even many of Ephraim, and Manasseh, Issachar, and Zebulun, had not cleansed themselves, yet did they eat the passover otherwise than it was written. But Hezekiah prayed for them, saying, The good Lord pardon every one That prepareth his heart to seek God, the Lord God of his fathers, though he be not cleansed according to the purification of the sanctuary. And the Lord hearkened to Hezekiah, and healed the people." -- 2Chr 30:18-20 KJV

"And all the congregation of Judah, with the priests and the Levites, and all the congregation that came out of Israel, and the strangers that came out of the land of Israel, and that dwelt in Judah, rejoiced. So there was great joy in Jerusalem: for since the time of Solomon the son of David king of Israel there was not the like in Jerusalem." -- 2Chr 30:25-26

Your timeline may actually be no more than a year off, Dan. The John Gill footnote states, "the apostasy was in the fourth year of Rehoboam", who was Solomon's successor.

LXX


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Re: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« Reply #7 on: January 06, 2018, 08:10:03 AM »


According to your chronology, the time from Solomon's death to the destruction of the temple was 981 - 586 = 395 years.  If we assume that the years of the king's reigns were not all full years (for example 24 years 8 months, rather than 25, and etc.), there is likely enough overlap to whittle that number down to 390 years, which is the time (in days) that Ezekiel bore the iniquity of the house of Israel.
. . .
Your timeline may actually be no more than a year off, Dan. The John Gill footnote states, "the apostasy was in the fourth year of Rehoboam", who was Solomon's successor.


Thanks, LXX.  I will be adding a note or footnote to the timeline to include this important detail.

Dan
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Re: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« Reply #8 on: January 06, 2018, 10:15:00 AM »


According to your chronology, the time from Solomon's death to the destruction of the temple was 981 - 586 = 395 years.  If we assume that the years of the king's reigns were not all full years (for example 24 years 8 months, rather than 25, and etc.), there is likely enough overlap to whittle that number down to 390 years, which is the time (in days) that Ezekiel bore the iniquity of the house of Israel.
. . .
Your timeline may actually be no more than a year off, Dan. The John Gill footnote states, "the apostasy was in the fourth year of Rehoboam", who was Solomon's successor.


Thank you for this information LXX. It is beginning to make sense. I now understand why the older dates on other timelines are so different. But can you explain why they are so different during the Kings era? This one has Solomon's death at 931 B.C. which is 50 years earlier.

http://biblehub.com/timeline/

Ron



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Re: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« Reply #9 on: January 06, 2018, 10:42:23 AM »


can you explain why they are so different during the Kings era? This one has Solomon's death at 931 B.C. which is 50 years earlier.
http://biblehub.com/timeline/


Ron,

The variance between the biblical text and the "accepted" chronologies is explained by a modern secular invention called "coregency" which assumes, from interpretations of archaeological data (which many mislabel as "evidence"), that there were overlaps in the reigns of some kings, such as Hezekiah and his son Manasseh.  The most well-known of the coregent theorists is probably Edwin R. Thiele:


The Wikileaks king's lists tend to promote "coregencies", for example:


My recommendation?  Stick with the scripture.

LXX





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FaithIsKey

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Re: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« Reply #10 on: January 06, 2018, 11:51:28 AM »


My recommendation?  Stick with the scripture.


Amen to that!
Faith

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Re: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« Reply #11 on: January 06, 2018, 12:52:40 PM »


This Biblical Timeline was created using passages from the Brenton's 1851 Septuagint (LXX).  The timeline is anchored on a date of 586 BC for the destruction of Solomon's Temple. The Brenton verses are actively linked to the Studybible website.


Important Note: the Brenton Translation I reference was published by Samuel Bagster & Sons, Ltd., London 1851, and has a "begat age" for Lamech that is 20 years earlier than in the Hebrew text.

I believe the Brenton translation to be in error, and should read age 187 vs 167. If Methusala begat Lamech at age 167, he would have 802 years remaining in his life, which means he would still be alive after the flood. But if he begat Lamech at age 187, as indicated by the Hebrew text, he would die 6 or 7 years prior to the flood.

Therefore, the 187 year begat date for Lamech is probably the more accurate one.

I am adding this note to the timeline.

Dan
« Last Edit: January 06, 2018, 01:58:39 PM by Administrator »
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Re: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« Reply #12 on: January 06, 2018, 05:15:41 PM »


I believe the Brenton translation to be in error, and should read age 187 vs 167. If Methusala begat Lamech at age 167, he would have 802 years remaining in his life, which means he would still be alive after the flood. But if he begat Lamech at age 187, as indicated by the Hebrew text, he would die 6 or 7 years prior to the flood.

Therefore, the 187 year begat date for Lamech is probably the more accurate one.


I found a supporting article in "Answers in Genesis". This is an excerpt:

"This article will examine this issue and advance four main points: (1) the figure of 187 for Methuselah is original to the LXX translation and to Moses; (2) the reading of 167 in certain manuscripts of the LXX is a scribal error which occurred early in its complex transmissional history; (3) the appearance of 167 in some LXX manuscripts does not automatically negate the overall validity of the LXX's primeval chronology; and (4) numerous lines of historical and textual evidence suggest the young-earth creation community should remain open and willing to contemplate the strong likelihood that the primeval chronology of the LXX reflects most of the numbers that Moses originally recorded in Genesis 5 and 11." [Henry B Smith Jr, "Methuselah’s Begetting Age in Genesis 5:25 and the Primeval Chronology of the Septuagint." Answers in Genesis, 2017]


Dan

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Re: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« Reply #13 on: January 06, 2018, 05:42:42 PM »


I found a supporting article in "Answers in Genesis".



Check out this excerpt from the article:

"Demetrius the chronographer (ca. 220BC) Demetrius was a Hellenistic Jewish historian who wrote in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy IV (221–205 BC). He is 'the earliest datable Alexandrian-Jewish author we know' (Finegan 1998, 141). Demetrius' works are preserved in Eusebius' Praeparatio Evangelica and Clement of Alexandria's Stromata.He wrote in Greek (Hanson 1983, 183, n. 6) and is the earliest known witness to the Septuagint. In Demetrius' chronological system, Creation is dated at 5307 BC and the Flood at 3043 BC (Finegan 1998, 145).

"In Fragment 2:18, Demetrius writes, '[F]rom Adam until Joseph's brothers came into Egypt, there were 3624 years; and from the Deluge until Jacob's coming into Egypt, 1360 years' (Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica, 9.21.18).18 These figures yield a period of 2264 years from Adam to the Flood (3624–1360). Demetrius is obviously using the LXX's longer chronology. For his antediluvian chronology to add up to 2264/2 years,19 the begetting age for Methuselah must be 187. Thus, Demetrius is the earliest known witness to an LXX manuscript that contained the 187 reading for Genesis 5:25, remarkably close in time to the original Greek translation of the Pentateuch (ca. 281 BC)." [Henry B Smith Jr, "Methuselah’s Begetting Age in Genesis 5:25 and the Primeval Chronology of the Septuagint." Answers in Genesis, 2017]

Dan

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Re: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« Reply #15 on: January 06, 2018, 07:21:54 PM »


This Biblical Timeline was created using passages from the Brenton's 1851 Septuagint (LXX) [1].  The timeline is anchored on a date of 586 BC for the destruction of Solomon's Temple. The Brenton verses are actively linked to the Studybible website.



Dan,

Cainan, the son of Arphaxad is missing from the timeline:

"And Arphaxad begot Cainan, and Cainan begot Sala. And Sala begot Heber." -- Gen 10:24 LXX

"And Arphaxad lived a hundred and thirty-five years, and begot Cainan. And Arphaxad lived after he had begotten Cainan, four hundred years, and begot sons and daughters, and died. And Cainan lived a hundred and thirty years and begot Sala; and Cainan lived after he had begotten Sala, three hundred and thirty years, and begot sons and daughters, and died." -- Gen 11:12-13 LXX

Luke also mentions Cainan in the genealogy, but for some reason the MT leaves it out:

"Which was the son of Saruch, which was the son of Ragau, which was the son of Phalec, which was the son of Heber, which was the son of Sala, Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Sem, which was the son of Noe, which was the son of Lamech," -- Luk 3:35-36 KJV

"And Arphaxad lived five and thirty years, and begat Salah: And Arphaxad lived after he begat Salah four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters. And Salah lived thirty years, and begat Eber:" -- Gen 11:12-14 KJV

Rev

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Re: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« Reply #16 on: January 07, 2018, 06:10:50 PM »


Cainan, the son of Arphaxad is missing from the timeline:


Thanks, Rev. 

I updated the timeline (here and on the BRT Website) to include Cainan, son of Arphaxad.  I also changed the age of Methuselah at the birth to Lamech from 167 to 187.

Dan

« Last Edit: January 07, 2018, 06:37:10 PM by Administrator »
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Re: Biblical Timeline Using The Septuagint
« Reply #17 on: February 08, 2018, 09:39:50 PM »


According to your chronology, the time from Solomon's death to the destruction of the temple was 981 - 586 = 395 years.  If we assume that the years of the king's reigns were not all full years (for example 24 years 8 months, rather than 25, and etc.), there is likely enough overlap to whittle that number down to 390 years, which is the time (in days) that Ezekiel bore the iniquity of the house of Israel.
. . .
Your timeline may actually be no more than a year off, Dan. The John Gill footnote states, "the apostasy was in the fourth year of Rehoboam", who was Solomon's successor.


LXX, while revisiting the timeline, I noticed the Septuagint Greek of Ezekiel 4:5 & 9 has a time of iniquity of only 190 years, and in verse 4 only 150 years.  I then compared the Dead Sea Scrolls and found the 390 years as written in the MT. 


A second DSS web site confirmed the 390 years.


I updated the top note in the timeline to reflect this inconsistency.

Dan


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